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Better Smart Talk Book Summary – Patrick King

What you will learn from reading Better Small Talk:

– The significant role of small talk in fostering meaningful connections.

– Actionable tips for initiating, sustaining, and steering conversations effectively.

– How to make conversations memorable and impactful, enhancing their communication skills.

Book Summary:

“Better Small Talk” by Patrick King sheds light on the often underestimated skill of engaging in small talk. King emphasizes that despite initial hesitations and perceptions of its insignificance, small talk plays a vital role in building lasting connections and meaningful conversations. It’s simply a part of the relational process, so why not aim to excel in it?

Having delved into various communication books I’ve noticed many overlapping points across the literature. However, what I appreciated about King’s book was its fresh and practical ideas that I hadn’t encountered before. These unique insights are likely to be valuable tools for improving my small talk abilities in the future.


Chapter 1: Ugh, Small Talk

The understanding that humans developed advanced cognitive capacities within complex social structures underscores the importance of collaboration in the emergence of language, empathy, and culture. However, this book highlights another essential aspect: while the presence of others is significant, the quality of our interactions plays an equally vital role in shaping our well-being and happiness.

Research has unveiled a distinct correlation between engaging in substantive, profound conversations and experiencing heightened levels of well-being and happiness. Conversely, small talk, lacking in substance and depth, exhibits a negative association with well-being and happiness, detracting from people’s overall happiness.

We all yearn for point C (where connections are established) and loathe being stuck at point A (where connections are lacking). Yet, navigating the middle ground, point B, often proves challenging (“But I despise small talk!”). The key lies in finding a pathway through this intermediary stage.


The Small Talk Mindset

The conversation extends beyond spontaneous wit and improvised banter. Few of us can sustain constant charm and spontaneity. However, what’s sustainable, practical, and effective is preparing beforehand for social interactions. Priming yourself to excel in conversations is key.

Surprisingly, thorough preparation can enhance spontaneity and relaxation. Thus, the initial step toward engaging in banter and small talk is psychological readiness. Mentally warming up involves gently stretching and flexing our social muscles, ensuring we’re ready for interaction.

If you consistently miss out on socialising opportunities, you might start believing you’re bad at it or that people don’t like you—a harmful trap. We often oversimplify socialising, assuming we’re either good or bad at it. However, socialising isn’t inherently easy or intuitive. Initially, we may prefer solitude over brief interactions with strangers, but research proves otherwise. Engaging in short bursts enhances happiness and social inclination, while also mentally preparing us for effective conversations in any setting.

If your initial inclination is to shy away from initiating conversations or connecting with strangers, recognise that it’s a natural bias to gravitate towards solitude.


So, how do we overcome this innate tendency to avoid small interactions and prepare ourselves for more frequent and meaningful conversations?

  • This is where the concept of aiming for ten-second interactions comes into play. Whether it’s a simple “Hello there!” or a brief exchange about someone’s day, tailor the interaction to your comfort level. The key is to start small and maintain consistency in your efforts.


Service workers like baristas, cab drivers, cashiers, and waiters represent a valuable resource for practising social skills. Their job requirements mandate courteous customer service, creating a safe environment for experimentation without fear of judgment.

Make it a daily goal to engage in brief interactions with strangers, particularly before social events, to warm up for conversations and develop a genuine interest in others.


A Childlike Exercise

Enhance your conversation skills effortlessly by simply reading aloud. Choose an excerpt rich in emotions, featuring dialogue from various characters to immerse yourself fully. As you physically engage in this exercise, you’ll notice a corresponding increase in psychological and social readiness.

Enhance your conversation skills effortlessly by simply reading aloud.


Exercise for reading out loud!

Choose an excerpt rich in emotions, featuring dialogue from various characters to immerse yourself fully. As you physically engage in this exercise, you’ll notice a corresponding increase in psychological and social readiness. Things to keep in mind:

  • Embrace exaggeration to the fullest, amplifying every emotion to the extreme. Scream, whisper, laugh maniacally, and let your rage boil over as you embody each character with zany voices.
  • Seek emotional diversity, accentuating the highs and lows of the text to expand your range.
  • Pay attention to your diction and enunciation, warming up your tongue to avoid stumbling in conversation.
  • Select a passage with diverse dialogue to fully engage your vocal muscles.
  • Monitor your breathing to ensure proper diaphragm engagement, allowing for confident projection. Remember, your voice, emotions, and breathing are intricately linked, enhancing your ability to convey a wide emotional spectrum.
  • Experiment with pace to convey intensity, slowing down for impactful moments.

Now, let’s dive back into the excerpt, utilising all these techniques to elevate your performance to new heights! Compare your third rendition to the first, and revel in the progress achieved through focused practice.


Did this exercise and its directions challenge you? Assess your expressiveness in everyday conversations and compare it to your potential.

Try variations, like singing loudly in the car on the way to a party. It boosts energy and sharpens expression.


Your Conversational Resume

To excel in small talk, it’s crucial to set the right mood. The conversation isn’t solely about quick thinking at the moment; it’s about building a repertoire you can rely on daily. Develop a conversation “résumé” to draw from in nearly every interaction.


This concept serves two purposes:

  • Firstly, it prompts self-reflection on what aspects of ourselves others find interesting and helps us solidify our identity, quirks, achievements, and perspectives, fostering self-awareness and confidence.
  • Secondly, it provides a ready arsenal of engaging stories, achievements, and viewpoints to rescue us from awkward silences in conversations.


An added benefit is that when you’re prepared in advance, you can relax and exude confidence in the moment. To feel more at ease in social settings, it’s beneficial to consider how you’re perceived from others’ perspectives.

Remember, if someone poses a question, you’re not obligated to answer directly. Instead, you can steer the conversation towards topics you’ve prepared on your conversation résumé.


There are four sections to your conversation resume:

  • Daily Life:
    • Weekend activities or notable events
    • Current week/day highlights
    • Family/significant other updates
    • Work updates
  • Personal:
    • Hobbies and interests
    • Biggest passion or interest outside of work
    • Background information (origin, current location, schooling, job)
    • Previous travels and social events
  • Notable:
    • Five unique experiences
    • Five significant accomplishments
    • Ten strengths
    • Past five years of travel experiences
    • Recent social event attendance
    • Ten interests or things you cannot live without
  • Staying Current:
    • Top five current events of the week and month
    • Four funny personal situations from the past week
    • Four interesting things you’ve read or heard about recently


Conversational Stages

Consider conversations as unfolding in four distinct stages, each progressively delving deeper into intimacy.

  1. The initial stage is small talk, characterised by exchanging pleasantries or engaging in general chitchat. Keep the topics light and universally relatable, such as the weather or current events, to establish positive rapport. This phase is about making initial contact rather than delving into personal details, so maintain a friendly demeanor and avoid intense topics or prolonged eye contact.
  2. Moving on to the second step: fact disclosure. Here, you share basic details about your life—work, interests, or current activities—to foster trust and confidence. However, refrain from expressing strong opinions or emotions at this stage. Allow the other person to gradually get to know you, and adjust the depth of your disclosures based on their response.
  3. The third step involves opinion disclosure, where you explore common ground and share viewpoints. Be mindful of the context of your conversation, as the depth of discussion may vary depending on the situation. While seeking shared connections is essential for building rapport, respect the other person’s pace and comfort level.
  4. Finally, emotion disclosure is the ultimate stage where you share personal feelings genuinely. Recognise that everyone has different thresholds for intimacy, so proceed with sensitivity and respect for boundaries.


Chapter 2: Initial Impressions

Most people don’t dive into conversation headfirst. Instead, they extend gestures, gauge responses, and adjust gradually.

In conversation, especially during small talk, we unconsciously send signals, assessing and being assessed by others. How you carry yourself communicates the type of interaction you prefer.

What signals are you sending? Ideally, we want to convey comfort and familiarity. While it’s understandable to hesitate to reach out first, this reluctance often leads to a stalemate. Treating others as strangers perpetuates that distance. To set a welcoming tone, mentally shift to “we’re friends now” and interact accordingly.


Set the Tone

Stop treating every conversation like a professional networking event. Instead, ask yourself how you would speak to friends.

The freedom from filters that we enjoy with friends can lead conversations to fascinating, emotion-driven, and slightly inappropriate places.

Many of us struggle with conversation when we overthink it. We analyze, plan, and filter our words unnecessarily, adhering to conversational norms while ignoring the person before us. We often dampen excitement and intrigue to avoid causing offence or due to self-consciousness. By censoring ourselves and assuming what others want to hear, we miss opportunities for genuine connection and enjoyment.


Ways to set the tone in a conversation:

In the first few seconds, set the stage for open, engrossing interaction. Be aware and skilful in adjusting your demeanour to match your intentions. Embrace a playful, relaxed attitude akin to interactions with friends. Surprise with unexpected answers and colourful language.

Infuse lightheartedness by exaggerating, being absurd, or going over the top in a way that grabs attention. Deliberately misinterpret situations in absurd ways or pose hypothetical questions to break the monotony of everyday life.

Experiment with silly role plays, sarcasm, or “breaking the fourth wall” by discussing the conversation itself. These tactics foster camaraderie and keep interactions fresh and engaging.


How do you emulate friendship? It’s about authenticity, assumed familiarity, speaking your mind, expressing emotions, and asking genuine, curiosity-driven questions.

Tip: Next time you’re with friends, observe the effortless interaction. Notice the lack of pretence, the genuine connections, the depth of questions, and the comfort and familiarity among everyone.


Make the First Move

Once you’ve prepared yourself, adjust your mindset, and overcome your small talk bias, there’s just one more step—actually speaking up.

Our discomfort often stems from the fear of interrupting or inconveniencing others, leading to a negative feedback loop in our minds. We worry about being perceived as weird, creepy, or rude, and fear annoying others or intruding on private conversations.

Despite these fears being unfounded, they hinder us from effortlessly breaking the ice. To overcome this, we must find tactics to challenge the judgments and assumptions we make about ourselves when making introductions.


How can you feel comfortable breaking the ice? By doing it indirectly. In other words, having a pretext or justification to initiate conversation—once you’ve identified a reason, approaching someone or interrupting becomes much easier. This approach provides a sense of plausible deniability, giving you a legitimate reason to start a conversation without coming across as rude or strange.


Here are three indirect methods to break the ice and feel at ease:

  1. Seek Objective Information or Opinions:
    • “Excuse me, do you know what time the speeches begin?”
    • “Do you know where the closest Starbucks is?”
    • “What did you think of the CEO’s speech?”
    • “Do you like the food here?”
  2. Comment on the Environment or Context:
    • “Did you see that piece of art on the wall? What a crazy concept.”
    • “The lighting in here is beautiful. I think it’s worth more than my house.”
    • “This is an amazing DJ. All the rock ballads of the ’80s.”
    • (Note: These are statements inviting comments, not direct questions.)
  3. Find a Commonality:
    • “So who do you know here?”
    • “How do you know Jack?”
    • “Has Jack told you about the time he went skiing with his dog?”

These commonalities serve as instant conversation starters because they inherently prompt a clear response.


Find Similarity

Recall the last time you met someone new—perhaps at a networking event or a social gathering. What were your initial questions? Likely familiar ones such as “Where are you from?” or “What do you do?” Yet, despite their ubiquity, these questions often fail to spark engaging conversation.

Why do we ask them then? It’s not for their ice-breaking prowess but rather our innate desire to find common ground—a shared experience or interest that can deepen the dialogue. This instinct is rooted in our evolutionary past, where familiarity meant safety amidst the unknown.


Discovering even a single similarity with another person triggers a cascade of positive perceptions. We see them as kindred spirits, extensions of ourselves. It’s a testament to our primal urge for connection and belonging in an uncertain world.

While small talk questions serve as a common tool for uncovering similarities, there exist more effective and engaging methods for discovering shared interests and connections with others.


Effective Ways to Discover Shared Interests:

Searching for similarities:

One effective approach is to ask insightful questions and use the responses as a springboard to uncover connections, no matter how subtle. Inquire about people’s interests, passions, and perspectives to gain a deeper understanding of who they are. This approach necessitates looking beyond our own perspectives and recognising that people often share common attitudes, experiences, and emotions—we just need to uncover them.

However, we must exercise caution to avoid alienating others or putting them on the spot. Instead of pressuring them, let the conversation flow naturally, allowing for genuine engagement and connection.

For example:

  • Person A: “Hey, have you seen XYZ series?”
  • Person B: “Uh, no, I’ve heard it’s popular, but I haven’t seen it myself!”
  • Person A: “Oh. You should totally watch it, though. It’s great. It’s a lot like [names very similar series]. Have you seen that?”
  • Person B: “Hm, no, doesn’t ring a bell.”
  • Person A: “No?! Oh, you’re missing out. What about [gives yet another related show]? Please tell me you’ve seen that, right?”

Alternatively, consider how the conversation could have unfolded:

  • Person A: “Hey, have you seen XYZ series?”
  • Person B: “Uh, no, I’ve heard it’s popular, but I haven’t seen it myself!”
  • Person A: “Oh, it’s great. One of those Scandinavian cop drama things… Depends on how moody you like your main characters to be!”
  • Person B: “Ah, moody? No thanks, there’s enough drama for me in real life…”
  • Person A: “Yeah? So you’re a comedy person then?”
  • Person B: “Well, it’s funny you ask…” [and so on].

Creating Similarities

This can be achieved through mirroring – matching people’s body language, voice tone, speech pace, and overall demeanour, a technique known to foster positivity and rapport. Furthermore, mirroring extends to verbal expressions, encompassing tone, inflexion, word choice, slang, emotional cues, and energy levels.

Secondly, sharing a substantial amount of personal information can also create opportunities for similarities, often surpassing typical disclosure levels.

Mutual Dislike

Mutual dislike can also serve as a potent bonding agent. Put simply, shared aversion can generate a sense of excitement that rivals, if not surpasses, the bond formed through shared affinities.


Manufacture Connection

Despite your best efforts, some individuals may not readily engage, choosing to keep their distance. However, it’s important not to reciprocate their reserve, as their reasons are often unrelated to you. In a way, this situation requires creating a connection from thin air.

This is where the art of elicitation proves invaluable. Elicitation involves using a conversational style to prompt people to share more. Crafted statements can trigger a desire to respond, fostering engagement effortlessly. Unlike direct questions, indirect inquiries are often more effective in encouraging openness.


Here are a few methods of elicitation, to get people to talk to you:

  • Recognition: Acknowledging something positive about someone often leads them to share related stories or experiences. For instance, complimenting someone’s attire can prompt them to talk about its origin or significance.
    • For example: Commenting “I love your sweater” and you will get a story about how the wearer obtained the sweater.
  • Complimenting: Offering appreciation or praise tends to invite individuals to elaborate on their achievements or experiences, similar to recognition.
  • Complaining: Expressing grievances can serve as a bonding point, especially when shared. Initiating a complaint can prompt others to join in or offer their perspective, fostering a judgment-free environment.
  • Correction: People enjoy being right, so presenting an incorrect statement can prompt them to correct it, leading to further discussion.
  • Naïveté: Acting as if you’re on the verge of understanding can compel others to teach or showcase their knowledge. There are two effective methods of naivety that can be used:
    • Assume their response to a question and react accordingly:
      • You: “So, I heard the project didn’t go smoothly at work?”
      • Bob: “Yeah, not great.”
      • You: “I heard things were going well until that hiccup at the end of the quarter. But it’s understandable given the project’s complexity.”
    • Anticipate their response and continue elaborating:
      • You: “How was your vacation? I can imagine it was tough dealing with those challenges.”
      • Bobby: “Well, actually…”

These methods utilise people’s desire to correct misconceptions, even if they prefer not to discuss certain topics.


Chapter 3: How to be Captivating

To foster connections, we’ve discussed the importance of establishing a friendly, open tone, seeking or creating similarities, and employing elicitation techniques when necessary.

However, these interactions can be elevated by honing our storytelling skills. Storytelling is a powerful tool in crafting engaging conversations, capturing attention by artfully narrating past experiences in a compelling manner.


A Life of Stories

To improve storytelling, we must recognise narratives in daily life. Anything can be a great story if told well. Mini-stories, like anecdotes in conversations, make interactions more engaging. They offer insights into the storyteller’s thoughts, feelings, and personality, fostering connection and relatability.Craft these mini-stories beforehand to have compelling anecdotes ready for common questions.

What exactly constitutes a mini-story? It’s not the mundane exchange of “What do you do?” “I’m a marketing executive.” Instead, it’s about injecting anecdotes into such conversations that grab attention and spark further engagement.

  • For example, “I’m a marketing executive. Last week, we had a client who threatened to send bodyguards to our office! I usually handle client relations, but moments like these make me wish I were more involved in the creative side.”


Things to keep in mind when constructing Mini-Stories:

  • Craft brief three-sentence narratives for common conversation topics like your job, week, weekend plans, hometown, and hobbies.
  • When sharing a mini-story, acknowledge the question before diving into the narrative, ensuring it’s engaging and self-contained.
  • Utilize all five senses to vividly describe experiences, fostering deeper emotional engagement in your storytelling.

The 1:1:1 Method

In conversation, one effective storytelling method is prioritising the discussion afterward. This approach doesn’t require lengthy or intricate stories. Instead, it emphasises specific details that resonate with listeners without the need for multiple parts or stages.

This method emphasises a story with (1) a single action, (2) encapsulated in one sentence, and (3) evoking one primary emotion in the listener.

Your main objective isn’t to seek applause or admiration; it’s to create a comfortable, enjoyable atmosphere and facilitate enriching conversations. If interruptions occur during your story, condense it to essentials and encourage shared dialogue rather than monopolising the conversation. Remember: one action, one emotion, in one sentence. The 1:1:1 method advocates starting your story as near to the conclusion as feasible.


The Story Spine

The Story Spine serves as an enhanced and expanded iteration of the 1:1:1 method.


The Story Spine comprises eight essential elements:

Once upon a time: The story’s beginning, setting the context, introducing characters, and establishing the normal reality.

Every day: Further establishing the routine, often with characters experiencing boredom, sadness, or curiosity, setting the stage for change.

But one day: A significant event occurs, disrupting the character’s world and prompting a deep emotional response.

Because of that: Consequences arise, leading the main character to take action and propel the story forward.

Because of that: Complications escalate, stakes rise, and the plot thickens, drawing in additional characters and intensifying emotions.

Because of that: The narrative continues to unfold, with increasing complexity and depth.

Until finally: The conflict is resolved, and the story concludes, satisfying the audience’s anticipation for resolution.

And ever since then: The story is brought full circle, outlining the new normal and possibly imparting a moral or delivering a punchline.


Inside Stories

In every conversation, there’s a standout moment—a high point. Well-told stories often claim this spot, creating emotional impact and intrigue, laying the groundwork for future connection. Revisiting this peak later resembles a deconstructed inside joke.


How to create an inside joke:

To create an inside joke, recall the conversation’s high point later on. Use “call backs” to reference earlier topics in the current discussion. This technique involves revisiting old topics in a new context, often leading to a positive response.


Ask for Stories

What about prompting stories from others, ensuring they experience the same satisfaction as you when a story connects? Being a good conversationalist involves not just speaking well but also sharing attention and allowing for a balanced exchange.

How do you graciously invite others to share their experiences? It’s all in how you ask. Instead of seeking a simple answer, prompt with questions designed to elicit storytelling, such as, “Could you tell me about a moment from your recent project? What were your thoughts and how did you navigate through it?” Reporters excel at providing individuals with the context and boundaries to encourage extensive storytelling.

At times, we feel we’re carrying the weight of the conversation while the other person isn’t contributing much. However, this perspective overlooks the possibility that we’re not making it easy for them either. it’s possible we’re not asking the right questions, leading to lackluster responses.

To ensure smooth conversation flow, it’s essential to collaborate with your partner, provide support, offer cues, and facilitate engagement on both sides, not just yours.

Stories are personal and revealing, offering insights into emotions and values. Contrasted with closed-ended questions, story-inviting inquiries deepen connections. For example, instead of asking “What do you do?” try “What’s the most exciting part of your job?”

By deliberately seeking stories aligned with what you know about the person, you show that you’ve listened to their past experiences and values, fostering a deeper sense of connection.


Consider these guidelines when prompting someone for stories:

  1. Ask for a story.
  2. Be broad yet provide specific directions or prompts.
  3. Inquire about feelings and emotions.
  4. Offer directions for expanding answers, along with multiple prompts, hints, and possibilities.

If needed, directly prompt with phrases like “Tell me the story about…” For instance:

  • “Tell me about the time you…”
  • “Did you enjoy that…” rather than “How was it?”
  • “You seem focused. What happened in your morning…” instead of “How are you?”

Leverage people’s inclination to talk about themselves to foster deeper connections.


Pinning the Tail on the Donkey

Here’s a quick tip to demonstrate engagement and show you’re contributing to the conversation: “Pinning the Tail on the Donkey.” The “donkey” represents someone else’s story, and the “tail” is your addition to it. This technique not only allows you to contribute but also signals to others that you’re actively listening. It transforms the conversation into a collaborative creation. Essentially, you’re amplifying the impact of their story by adding your perspective. When crafting your “tail,” focus on the primary emotion conveyed in the story and amplify it with your comment.


Chapter 4: Keep it Flowing and Smooth

The dislike for small talk stems from its potential for uncomfortable and uninteresting conversations. Avoiding it leads to a lack of skill, creating a cycle where you miss out on its benefits.


Here are a few additional strategies to elevate small talk beyond its typical limitations.

Create Motion

Conversations thrive on movement and progression. Without it, they risk becoming stagnant and losing interest. Just as stories captivate with their evolution, conversations should feel purposeful and dynamic. Intentionally guiding dialogue towards new destinations ensures vitality and engagement.

Here is an example of how to create motion in a topic such as the weather:

  • Shift to a related weather topic.
  • Dive deeper into weather beyond superficial remarks.
  • Share a personal weather experience.
  • Inquire about favorite weather types.
  • Discuss the emotions weather evokes.
  • Share nuanced opinions on weather phenomena.
  • Pose imaginative hypothetical weather scenarios.
  • Reference external sources like articles or friends’ statements on weather.

Stagnation often sneaks into conversations, leading to lackluster interactions. It’s an easy trap to fall into, relying on the other person to carry the conversation.

To keep conversations dynamic, explore different angles and perspectives on the topic. However, beware of overplanning, as it can hinder spontaneity and natural flow.


The Dangers of planning ahead with fixed ideas and destinations in mind:

  1. Firstly, each participant will inevitably influence the others, subtly steering the discussion in their preferred direction.
  2. Secondly, rigid adherence to a predetermined path risks catastrophic derailment. By fixating on a singular destination, you close yourself off to alternative topics and fail to adapt effectively.
  3. Thirdly, maintaining a fixed conversational destination fosters a goal-oriented mindset, disregarding spontaneous interactions. Remember, the focus should be on the conversation’s flow rather than personal agendas.

Think on Your Feet

Let’s streamline conversation. It’s a flow of statements, stories, and questions. When one person contributes, the other responds, either on the same topic or a related one. This is where free association shines. Isn’t conversation essentially a series of free-association exercises?

For example, if someone mentions motorcycles and you lack experience with them, what do you say? Instead of dwelling on your lack of knowledge, focus on the word “motorcycles” and freely associate five things related to it. By disconnecting from past experiences, you breathe new life into the conversation.

Engaging in free association is easier than crafting responses. It allows you to detach from statements and explore subjects creatively. This trains your brain to think non-linearly and expand conversations.

Your knowledge level becomes irrelevant; you can contribute lively and personable insights. Embrace weird associations—they add humor and showcase your personality. Regular practice can unveil surprising creativity.

Avoid experimenting with this technique during actual conversations without prior practice.


The best exercises to practice free association:

  1. Exercise 1: jot down five random words and swiftly generate three associations for each. Then, connect the last word to form a new chain. Repeat thrice before moving to the next set. For instance: Napkin -> table, spoon, fine dining. Fine dining -> France, Michelin Star, butler. Butler -> Jeeves, white gloves, Michael Jackson.
  2. Exercise 2: randomly select words from a dictionary and verbally list fifteen associations in rapid succession. Repeat this process multiple times to enhance quick thinking.
  3. Exercise 3: For a creative challenge, select two dictionary words and craft a short story imagining them as a company name. Do this swiftly to sharpen creativity.
  4. Exercise 4: Lastly, pick five random words and swiftly weave them into a cohesive story. Speed is key to enhancing creativity. Despite initial challenges, consistent practice will yield significant improvement over time.

“In a sense, free association trains you to come up with conversation topics quickly.


Helpful Acronyms

HPM, SBR, and EDR represent nine versatile response strategies for any conversation.

HPM, SBR, and EDR represent nine versatile response strategies for any conversation.


HPM, short for History, Philosophy, and Metaphor, offers three approaches to responding in a conversation, drawing on your personal experiences and perspectives.

  • History involves sharing personal experiences related to the topic at hand. For example, recalling a skiing trip: “That reminds me of the last time I skied…”
  • Philosophy entails expressing your personal stance or opinion on the topic. For instance, discussing your love for skiing: “I’ve always loved skiing because…”
  • Metaphor involves relating the topic to something else. For instance, comparing skiing to snowboarding: “That’s just the opposite of snowboarding, isn’t it?”

These approaches focus on your own thoughts and experiences, rather than the other person, allowing you to contribute meaningfully to the conversation.


SBR, which stands for Specific, Broad, and Related, offers three types of responses to engage in conversation effectively.

  • Specific responses involve asking targeted questions about the current topic to gain deeper insights. For example, inquire about specific details: “Where was this? Who did you go with? When was this? How did you drive there?”
  • Broad responses entail asking open-ended questions to provide context and facilitate discussion. These questions help establish the background and lay of the land.
  • Related responses involve asking about topics directly or broadly connected to the current subject. These questions maintain relevance and keep the conversation flowing smoothly.

Overall, the SBR strategy emphasizes staying focused on the topics at hand, ensuring meaningful and engaging dialogue.


EDR, representing Emotion, Detail, and Restatements, offers a three-pronged approach to enhancing conversation dynamics.

  • Emotion (E) involves acknowledging your conversational partner’s emotional state. By expressing what you perceive their feelings to be, you invite them to clarify or confirm their emotions. For instance, you might say, “It sounds like you’re really excited about that,” prompting them to elaborate further.
  • Detail (D) entails soliciting specific information related to the topic under discussion. Utilize the “5 Ws” (who, what, where, when, and why) to delve deeper into the conversation and gain a clearer understanding of the subject matter.
  • Restatements (R) involve summarizing what the other person has said and reflecting it back to them. By restating their statements, you validate their contribution to the conversation and encourage further elaboration.

In essence, EDR facilitates meaningful dialogue by acknowledging emotions, seeking detailed information, and affirming the contributions of your conversation partner.


By stringing together these acronyms, you’ll have a toolkit of nine techniques that ensure seamless conversation flow, ensuring you’ll never be at a loss for words.


Chapter 5: Go Deeper, Be Better

The Oldest Trick in the Book

One of the simplest ways to win someone over is by freely and promptly offering compliments. Contrary to the old adage, flattery can indeed open many doors! Considering the positive thoughts we often have about others, expressing them aloud is a natural step forward.

When giving compliments, it’s crucial to distinguish between superficial remarks and deeper acknowledgments.


Superficial compliments, like praising someone’s appearance, can feel insincere and lack impact over time.

  • For more meaningful compliments, focus on qualities or actions individuals have control over and consciously choose. These acknowledgments are more likely to make people feel valued and proud of their efforts. Examples include specific habits, unique fashion sense, or thoughtful words and actions.
  • Meaningful compliments resonate deeply because they reflect an individual’s thought processes and identity. These compliments acknowledge choices made to represent personal tastes and values, rather than superficial attributes.
  • Compliments address a fundamental human need for attention. To offer more meaningful praise, consider recognising aspects beyond the typical compliments someone receives.
  • Highlighting people’s idiosyncrasies fosters genuine appreciation for their unique traits—whether mental, emotional, or physical.
  • When acknowledging idiosyncrasies, ensure your tone and body language convey genuine admiration, devoid of any judgment.

Two Ears, One Mouth

Regrettably, some individuals view conversations solely as an outlet for their own thoughts and emotions. They may enter with a predetermined agenda or simply be preoccupied with their own affairs, neglecting to inquire about yours.

If someone answers your questions without reciprocating interest in your well-being, they ought to listen more. And if that describes you, it’s time to become a better listener.

In conversation, it’s crucial not to simply wait for your turn to speak. True listening entails clearing your mind of preconceived responses and tailoring your reply directly to the speaker’s words.

“You aren’t listening with an aim to respond. You are just listening, and then later, you are responding.”

If you stay silent just to wait for your turn to speak, you’re not truly engaging. Conversations require collaboration, not monologues. Interrupting can alienate your partner, so align your actions with your intentions.


Here are some guidelines for interruptions:

  1. Only interrupt if you strongly agree and can finish their sentence.
  2. If you do interrupt, immediately ask them to continue and redirect the focus back to them.
  3. Use the two-second rule: Pause for two seconds after they finish speaking before responding.

“You know how good it feels to express and explain yourself, so don’t rob others of that same experience.”

Ensuring that someone feels they have the spotlight is distinct from simply giving it to them. Treat others as though they’re the most captivating individual present, and demonstrate genuine appreciation for learning more about them.


Ask Better Questions

A well-crafted question sets the stage, establishes rapport, intrigues, propels dialogue, and demonstrates attentive listening.


Try these six strategies to build depth and improve intimate relationships:

  1. Pose open-ended questions that delve into reasons, stories, emotions, and thought patterns, rather than seeking simple factual information.
  2. Probe beyond assumptions by asking for explanations, beliefs, or underlying assumptions. For instance, inquire about how conclusions were reached or what distinguishes a particular situation. For example: “How did you come to that conclusion?” “What makes this particular situation different from normal?” “What gave you this idea?”
  3. Seek multiple perspectives to gain a comprehensive understanding of the broader context. Encourage discussion on alternative viewpoints or potential consequences of different approaches. For example: “Is there another perspective on this situation?” “What are some of the things someone who disagrees with you would say?” “What would happen if someone did this differently?”
  4. Use follow-up questions to deepen the conversation by linking responses to previous discussions and prompting analysis or connections between ideas. For example: “What you just mentioned about not fully understanding computer technology reminds me of what you said about not doing well in school. How do those relate?”
  5. Embrace moments of silence to allow space for reflection and new insights to emerge. Offer gentle encouragement or affirmations to signal openness to further exploration.
  6. Encourage self-discovery by prompting individuals to reflect on their experiences and draw their own conclusions. Instead of imposing viewpoints, foster introspection with questions like, “What insights did you gain from navigating the Amazon River?

We’re naturally inclined to discuss our own experiences, but there’s value in exploring topics outside of ourselves. Author Daniel Menaker dubs this approach focusing on “third things”—topics unrelated to either you or the other person. It could be anything external, from current events to nature. Think of it as an upgraded form of small talk.

Simply ask others about their thoughts or reactions to various events or topics. Unlike direct personal questions, this approach often yields more insightful responses.

By bringing up worldly matters, you indirectly glean insights into others’ personalities and perspectives through their reactions. This way, you learn more about them without putting them on the spot.


Chapter 6: Looking Inwards

Those who engage with life are inherently captivating. To be intriguing, cultivate diverse experiences and perspectives. Essentially, be the kind of person you’d find fascinating to meet.


Build Thyself

The key isn’t to engage in extreme activities to be deemed interesting. Rather, it’s about actively pursuing your passions and interests. As your interests diversify, so does your appeal. By broadening your range of hobbies, you increase the likelihood of connecting with others who share similar interests, making you more engaging and relatable.

“You’re simply increasing your surface area of being interesting and engaging.”

Engaging in a hobby isn’t just about mindlessly collecting or consuming. It’s about having a genuine passion that involves creation, learning, inspiration, connection, and skill. Not all hobbies are equal; some are about passive consumption, while others are about active participation and growth.

Strive to always have a project in your free time, something unrelated to work and not just consuming media on a screen.


Branch Out

Cultivate your knowledge through reading, whether it’s books or newspapers, even just a few minutes a day. Understanding how things work and their connections can enrich conversations and make you more captivating.

The broader your knowledge, the greater the chance of finding common ground with your conversation partner. It’s not just about being interesting; it’s about making conversations effortless and enjoyable.

Having informed opinions shows your engagement with the world and your ability to think critically. However, it’s essential to remain open-minded and receptive to others’ perspectives.


You Only See Black and White

Be careful not to slip into the toxic habit of seeing things in black and white.

If you rigidly adhere to one perspective, considering any deviation as incorrect, you limit your openness to new ideas. It’s common to mistake intelligence for intolerance and personal beliefs for absolute correctness.

But what if you find yourself conversing with someone you consider foolish? Here’s the reality: there’s no such thing. Despite vast differences or outright wrongness in their views, there’s always something to learn, rapport to build, and engaging conversation to be had.

Many of us mistakenly believe that authenticity requires us to argue or defend ourselves against those with differing views. However, it’s crucial not to make others feel judged or attacked when expressing ourselves.

Judgment stifles curiosity and playfulness, limiting our perception and compassion while hindering creativity. Who wants to engage with someone who leaves them feeling judged and defensive? It alienates others, shutting down open communication.


Instead of assuming someone is wrong, consider if you lack sufficient information. Respect others’ opinions as rooted in reason, and inquire about their thought process and underlying assumptions. This approach fosters understanding and constructive dialogue.

Assume that everyone is doing their best, given their circumstances. By adopting this perspective, we can alleviate judgmental instincts and foster understanding and empathy towards others.